Wiki Environment http://wikienvironment.org Encyclopedia of Environment Wed, 29 Aug 2018 15:49:06 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.9.3 IOT Project http://wikienvironment.org/iot-project/ http://wikienvironment.org/iot-project/#comments Mon, 04 Dec 2017 14:00:36 +0000 http://wikienvironment.org/?p=149 The post IOT Project appeared first on Wiki Environment.

]]>
The post IOT Project appeared first on Wiki Environment.

]]>
http://wikienvironment.org/iot-project/feed/ 3
A field tour in Halda River Chittagong Bangladesh http://wikienvironment.org/halda-river-ctg-bd/ http://wikienvironment.org/halda-river-ctg-bd/#comments Mon, 28 Aug 2017 20:14:26 +0000 http://wikienvironment.org/?p=135 This report has been written as a field report in Halda River Chittagong Bangladesh. Many information provided here may helpful who are searching for information about Halda River Chittagong Bangladesh. Let’s see the report.   Introduction:   The purpose of education is to develop the knowledge, skill or character of students. Thus the education is the process […]

The post A field tour in Halda River Chittagong Bangladesh appeared first on Wiki Environment.

]]>
This report has been written as a field report in Halda River Chittagong Bangladesh. Many information provided here may helpful who are searching for information about Halda River Chittagong Bangladesh. Let’s see the report.

 

Introduction:

 

The purpose of education is to develop the knowledge, skill or character of students. Thus the education is the process of learning and knowing, which is not restricted to our campus or textbooks. Therefore, Students not only required quality education but also effective and latest means of learning to have a better knowledge and have a command on what they are studding presently so they will able to apply that knowledge in their future lives also. For this purpose, different sort of activities like seminars, discussions, presentations, workshops, local conferences, lectures and educational field trips are essentials to conduct at this level. Especially the activity of educational field trips which are commonly conducted for the students at higher level are one of the major source of providing knowledge to the students by giving opportunity for self-experiences and observations and self-long lasting learning.

 

As we are students of Environmental science we must have the practical knowledge. So in our syllabus there is a course included for only field work. In every semester we go for a field trip and gather practical knowledge.  In 5th semester we choose Halda River to evaluate the level of anthropogenic environmental degradation in Halda River. In 5th semester there we have a course named Anthropogenic Environmental Degradation. With this tour we have also done the practical work of this course.

The deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources is known as environmental degradation. The anthropogenic environmental degradation the degradation which is caused by unwise and audacious activities that are made by humans. Halda is not free from pollution. So, we the students of 5th semester, environmental science, had decided to pay a visit at Halda River to understand the anthropogenic environmental degradation under the guidance of two of our honorable teachers.

 

 

Why Halda river is Selected:

 

Bangladesh is a riverine country. Once Bangladesh had more than 1400 to 1500 rivers but at present it has only 230 to 310 rivers and few tributaries & distributaries. Rivers are wetland play very crucial roles in the development of any country (Humayun Kabir et al.) Halda River is one of the most important rivers as it is the only pure carp breeding field in South Asia. (Akter and Ali, 2012) The river provides favorable physicochemical factors for the major Indian carps and creates a congenial environment for their spawning during monsoon between April and June (Kibria et al. 2009). Halda is one of the major contributing rivers to the national economy of Bangladesh. The total value in million US$ segmented contributions of fishing, fish fry, irrigation, drinking water, water transportation and sand extraction respectively were 0.07, 0.005, 15.78,1.33, 0.12, 2.51. (Kabir, et al. 2013). Halda is one of the most valuable rivers in Chittagong city after Kornofulli River. It is the only tidal river in the world from where fertilized eggs of carps are collected during the breeding season. Its unique features and importance made it as a most valuable river in our country as well as south Asia. The Halda River is important for natural breeding ground for many Indian Carps.(Alam et al., 2013)

 

To get practical knowledge and conduct a survey we, the student of environmental science 35th batch visited the Halda River under the course of “Anthropogenic Environmental Degradation.” We tried to reach the local people and understand their problems.

 

Visited area in Halda river:

We have visited Halda River and some nearby villages named Madarsha, Moishkorom, Urkir chor, Zia bazar. Originating from Halda chora, in Ramgarh Upazila under Khagrachari District, It flows through Fatikchhari Upazila, Hathazari Upazila, Raozan Upazila and Chittagong Chandgaon Thana before falling into the Karnaphuli River. The 98 km long river has a very turbulent tributary.We surveyed local people around the riverside for knowing their perception on on-going degradation.

 

Halda river Map:

 

halda-river-map

Figure:  Halda River map

 

 

Objectives of the halda river tour:

  • To determine the level of environmental degradation in Halda
  • To determine the major environmental degradation in Halda
  • To make a ranking of the environmental degradation in Halda
  • To evaluate the causes of environmental degradation in Halda
  • To visualize the significant impact of environmental degradation in Halda river ecosystem
  • To determine Impacts of environmental degradation on local peoples livelihood

 

Schedule of our tour in Halda River:

The schedule of the tour fixed before the tour. The date was fixed in 28th July 2017. The time schedule of the tour is given below.

 

  • Started from IFESCU: 8.00 am
  • Reached Oxygen:8.40 am
  • Started from Oxygen:9.05 am
  • Reached Modunaghat (Barua para) :9.30 am
  • Reached Modunaghat natural fish egg and fry production centre : 10.22 am
  • Meet Md. Manzoorul Kibria Sir : 2.15 pm.
  • Briefing at Brick field area : 2.40 pm.
  • Lunch : 3.55 pm
  • Reached Urkirchor for survey : 4.30 pm.
  • Return journey : 5.40 pm

Road Plan to Halda river:

For this tour we chosen the easiest road plan. The road plan of the tour was…

IFESCU Campuss → Oxygen more→Kuwaish more → Modhunaghat→Halda river

 

Description of the tour on Halda river:

 

At first our institute bus started study tour journey from IFESCU premises at 8.00 am. Then the bus reached oxygen moor at 8.40 am. After that we have finished our breakfast and then started our journey again for the Modunaghat area. Our institute bus stopped near Modunaghat bridge and we went to the Barua para by walking. Meanwhile, we got a well-structured questionnaires for surveying. Our honorable sirs gave us some information about the surroundings and our responsibilities and taught us how to conduct survey. Every students got 2 pieces of questionnaire survey copy for the data collection. While walking we have come across the sluice gate area where some fishermen were catching fish from the river. We, along with our sirs stopped there. Our honorable teacher asked a local man for survey and gave a practical knowledge for conducting a survey. The old man named Mohammed Younus Chowdhury (58 years) gave a lot of information about Halda. The information that he has given are follows:

 

  • Fishes like Rui, Catla, Baila, Magur, Icha mach etc. are found in this river
  • The sluice gate was built on 1980
  • Flood is occurred due to mismanagement of this sluice gate
  • Those sluice gates are under Water Development Board
  • The depth of the river is also decreasing due to siltation
  • Water quality of this river is gradually decreasing due to industrial effluent
  • Besides various dead livestock’s floating out in the river, also causing degradation of the river ecosystem.
  • Now only 10% of fish are got in regards to previous time

Mohammed Younus Chowdhury also gave some recommendation also for mitigating pollution in halda. These was

  1. Open water flow through sluice gate
  2. Proper management of sluice gate
  3. Controlling industrial waste
  4. Establish the “Food in return of work” which is under Union Parishad, to stop the illegal fishing in the river
sluice gate

Solid waste blocks the sluice gate at katakhali Khal besides Halda river

 

 

We again started our journey again and reached ‘Madunaghat natural spawn and fry production center’ at 10.20 am. A man named Gazi Selim who was caretaker of this institution welcomed us and gave us a lot information of Halda river and the the process and facts of natural spawning.

He gave us the following information:

 

  • Halda is a river famous in Asia
  • Halda is the only river where fertilized egg are found
  • The carp fish spawns egg in May to June month
  • The egg of 4 days age are most valuable
  • The fish can give egg at any time. When they realize the environment is suitable the give egg
  • During March- July in these period fishing is strictly prohibited
  • Thunder, lighting, rain, direction of sun and moon etc are factors to brood fishes to lay eggs in the river
  • In 48 hours the fertilized eggs grow to small fish and in between 5 days the blood generate in their body
  • PH=7.5- 9 is needed for survival of the eggs but 7.6 is the best of all
  • 1 kg fertilized eggs can produce 4 lakh fries. The market price of it is almost 60,000 taka
  • The centre established on 1991
  • Some people collect fish in traditional wayHe also addressed some reasons of the ecosystem degradation of Halda river:
    • The depth of the river become very narrow due to sedimentation
    • Fish hunters in the river banks are gradually increasing
    • Reducing water quality due to dumping of dead animals
    • Illegal fishing during the time of mother fishes to lay eggs
    • Lack of proper patrolling

     

    After that we have met a person named Asok Barua, a local man. From him we also gathered information about the present status of Halda. He told us due to over flow of the river the adjacent agricultural field has been destroyed. People are using fertilizer in the crops and the excessive use of fertilizer and insecticides the river is getting polluted by surface runoff. He informed us the depth of the river is lessening due to siltation. He also told that the agricultural cost is increasing due to over-flooding.

     

    After that, we started our survey. We have visited some household at Madarsha village with our previously made questionnaire. We asked about the present condition of Halda and how the river affecting their livelihood. We also wanted to know about the possible solution of degradation.

    A general overview of the survey, we found some problems or environmental degradation.

    These are…

  • RIVER EROSION
  • OVER FLOW
  • WATER LOGGING
  • SALINITY INCREASE
  • DEGRADATION OF FISH HABITAT

The villagers gave us recommendation also: These are enlisted below….

  1. CONSTRUCTION OF DAM / EMBANKMENT ALONG RIVERSIDE
  2. LAW ENFORCEMENT
  3. AWARENESS CREATION
  4. MODERN TECHNOLOGY TO Check degradation
  5. GOVT. INVOLVEMENT
  6. STOP HARVESTING OF FISH DURING BREEDING SEASON
  7. INCREASE THE HEIGHT OF A ROAD

 

After that, we came back to Modunaghat and met with Md. Monzoorul Kibria sir, Professor, Dept. Of Zoology, CU. He took us to a banned brickfield by riding boat in Halda River. We met some volunteers of “Volunteers of Bangladesh” in that area. We got a lot of information about Halda from Kibria sir.

He told us that Halda is the only endemic river of Bangladesh because origin and end of the river is in Bangladesh. It is natural breeding ground of Indian carps and for that it is termed as natural gene bank. It is lifeline of Chittagong. Everyday about 9 core liter water is collected from this river.  It is the habitat of some critically endangered species like ‘Ganges Dolphin’. From fish resources about 800 core BDT can be earned with contribute a major part in economy of Bangladesh. It’s the 3rd natural heritage like cox’s bazar and Sundarban.

He informed that the Halda River is directly connected with almost 36 cannel and through which the toxicants from industries and tanneries come to the river. Through Khandokia khal, maximum toxicants from tanneries are coming into the river. So dissolve Oxygen is getting lower. Brood fish are easily killed by illegal activities of fishermen. Due to oxbow cutting the normal flow of the river is interrupted and that’s why the aquatic ecosystem is degrading. And for these reasons lesser number of brood fish laying eggs in Halda River. A lot of sluice gate are built as well as rubber dam. So salinity is increasing in Halda River.

 

After visiting Halda, we came back to Modunaghat and take our launch. After launch we have visited “Moishkorom” in Urkirchor in Rawzan Upazila. Here we make another survey GroupWise. We collected data from the villagers. After that we started for the campus.

 

a tour in halda river chittagong Bnagladesh

A tour in halda river

 

Conclusion:

Halda River is one of the most resourceful rivers in Bangladesh. This river provides a number of products and services all-round the year to the communities living its vicinity. However, it has attained a very special identity and is frequently referred as a national natural heritage by being the only breeding and spawning ground for major Indian carps. Halda River fulfills two conditions fully and one condition by half among the four conditions of the UNESCO for being a site in world heritage. We hope that, Halda River will be a national natural heritage within few days and in future it will be a world heritage site. For this purpose, we should protect Halda river from being degraded by anthropogenic causes. Besides, modern technology (like GIS, remote sensing) should be used for more fish production.

 

REFERENCES:

Akter, A., and Ali, M.H. (2012). Environmental flow requirements assessment in the Halda River, Bangladesh. Hydrological Sciences Journal 57, 326–343.

Kabir, H., Kibria, M., Jashimuddin, M., and Hossain, M.M. (2015). Conservation of a river for biodiversity and ecosystem services: the case of the Halda–the unique river of Chittagong, Bangladesh. International Journal of River Basin Management 13, 333–342.

Kabir, M., Kibria, M., Jashimuddin, M., Hossain, M.M., and others (2016a). COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT IN RIVER MANAGEMENT FOR ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AND LIVELIHOOD: A CASE STUDY OF HALDA RIVER IN BANGLADESH. Environmental Research Journal 10.

 

Click here to see An analytical report on Halda River chittagong  Bangladesh

The post A field tour in Halda River Chittagong Bangladesh appeared first on Wiki Environment.

]]>
http://wikienvironment.org/halda-river-ctg-bd/feed/ 2
An analytical report on Halda River Bangladesh http://wikienvironment.org/halda-river/ http://wikienvironment.org/halda-river/#respond Sun, 27 Aug 2017 18:32:27 +0000 http://wikienvironment.org/?p=126 Halda is one of the major contributing rivers to the national economy of Bangladesh. Here is a complete analytical report on Halda River Bangladesh.   Introduction: The deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources is known as environmental degradation. The anthropogenic environmental degradation the degradation which is caused by unwise and audacious activities that are […]

The post An analytical report on Halda River Bangladesh appeared first on Wiki Environment.

]]>
Halda is one of the major contributing rivers to the national economy of Bangladesh. Here is a complete analytical report on Halda River Bangladesh.

 

Introduction:

The deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources is known as environmental degradation. The anthropogenic environmental degradation the degradation which is caused by unwise and audacious activities that are made by humans.  Rivers are wetland play very crucial roles in the development of any country (Humayun Kabir et al.) Halda River is one of the most important rivers as it is the only pure carp breeding field in South Asia. (Akter and Ali, 2012) The river provides favorable physicochemical factors for the major Indian carps and creates a congenial environment for their spawning during monsoon between April and June (Kibria et al. 2009).

 

Halda is one of the major contributing rivers to the national economy of Bangladesh. The total value in million US$ segmented contributions of fishing, fish fry, irrigation, drinking water, water transportation and sand extraction respectively were 0.07, 0.005, 15.78,1.33, 0.12, 2.51. (Kabir, et al. 2013) According to a study the  resources of Halda river are depleting day by day due to over-fishing, cutting off of existing oxbow bands, sedimentation on the river bed, changes in water quality, unplanned sluice gate establishment, shortage of sanctuaries, change in ecological system, lack of proper assesment of brood fish and management of the broods at their origin, immense sand quarrying, water contamination by industrial wastes, denudation of various species of fishes towards gradual extinction – including carps, unchecked riverbank erosion and above all global climate change (Rahman and Bishwas, 2009). The depletion of recent egg production in Halda river is a fulgent evidence of this study.

In recent years, Salinity intrusion is another major issues for Halda river ecosystem. The people of Chittagong city are facing serious water problem in the dry season because of salinity. Besides, crop land of the riverbank are significantly affected, and this reduces the production of crops. (Akter and Ali, 2012)

 

Halda is one of the most valuable rivers in Chittagong city after Kornofulli River. It is the only tidal river in the world from where fertilized eggs of carps are collected during the breeding season. Its unique features and importance made it as a most valuable river in our country as well as south Asia. The Halda River is important for natural breeding ground for many Indian Carps.(Alam et al., 2013) Originating from Halda chora, in Ramgarh Upazila under Khagrachari District, It flows through Fatikchhari Upazila, Hathazari Upazila, Raozan Upazila and Chittagong Chandgaon Thana before falling into the Karnaphuli River. The 98 km long river has a very turbulent tributary.

To get practical knowledge and conduct a survey we, the student of environmental science 35th batch visited the Halda River under the course of “Anthropogenic Environmental Degradation.” We tried to reach the local people and understand their problems.

Objectives of the report on Halda river:

The objectives of the report are

    • To percept about the environmental degradation in Halda
    • To determine the level of environmental degradation in Halda
    • To determine the major environmental degradation in Halda
    • To make a ranking of the environmental degradation in Halda
    • To evaluate the causes of environmental degradation in Halda
    • To visualize the significant impact of environmental degradation in Halda river ecosystem
    • To determine Impacts of environmental degradation on local peoples livelihood
    • To find out the suggestions from local people about mitigation of environmental degradation in Halda river
    • To percept the role of community for mitigation of the environmental degradation
    • To determine the expectation of local people from government institutions

 

Literature Review on Halda river: 

 

Bangladesh is riverine country. There are about 720 rivers in Bangladesh. Many types of research have been done with this rivers. The researches are mainly done to evaluating the ecosystem value of this river, the Implications of Climate Change on these rivers, the results of anthropogenic degradation on the rivers.

 

Halda is a important river for Bangladesh. So, a lot of researches are done to determine the value of this river.

Such an research is “Check-list of bony fish collected from the Upper Halda River, Chittagong, Bangladesh”. 

 

This research is done to make a list of bony fish in Halda river. In this research a result has come that the fish fauna in this river is dominated by the family of Cyprinidae (28.57 %) represented by 18 species, followed by Gobiidae (9.52 %) represented by 6 species and Schibeidae (7.94 %) with 5 species, than Bagridae and Channidae (6.35 %) with 4 species each, Siluridae (4.76 %) with 3 species. Among the listed families, there are 14 families represented by a single species and 4 families by 2 species.

The total number of species is 63 belonging to 51 genera pertaining to 24 families and 9 orders. The present study reported 5 migrant species from the Bay of Bengal and 3 species as exotic species. (Alam et al., 2013)

 

By studying this research we may get the idea about the fish species of the Halda river.

 

Another research is done on the Halda river is “Environmental flow requirements assessment in the Halda River, Bangladesh”.

By studying this research we can know about the environmental flow requirements in the Halda River. From this study, it was found that floods are likely to occur at least once in 2.1, 1.02, 1.75 and 1.25 years at Panchpukuria, Narayanhat, Telpari and Enayethat stations, respectively. The results of flow and water quality analyses suggest that environmental flow requirements cannot be achieved in this river throughout the year. (Akter and Ali, 2012)

Another study is found about the “Assessment of fish distribution and biodiversity status in Upper Halda River, Chittagong, Bangladesh”

In this study the status of biodiversity of Halda river is included. From this study total 4,337 individuals of fish were counted. 63 species belongs to 24 families and 51 genera were recorded. The most abundant family was Cyprinidae, having 817 individuals (18.84%) followed by Gobiidae family with 629 individuals. (Alam et al., 2013)

 

A study done on the ecosystem services of Halda river is done also. This is “Conservation of a river for biodiversity and ecosystem services: the case of the Halda – the unique river of Chittagong, Bangladesh”.  By close study of this research the total economic worth of benefits derived from provisioning services of the Halda was approximately BDT 1753 million. Irrigation and drinking water were the major contributors with BDT 1333 and 122 million, respectively. (HUMAYAIN et al.)

 

Moreover, we found from this study that Halda supports temporary and permanent livelihood for egg and fry collectors, boatmen, boat building and mending, sand quarrying. This creates a cumulative worth of BDT 283 million Taka. (HUMAYAIN et al.)

Halda is not free from the Engineering activities and their mismanagement. A study is to evaluate it. We will know about it by studying this research “Engineering activities and their mismanagement at Halda: a unique river for natural spawning of Major Indian carps” By studying this research we will know that among the 12 sluice gates/regulators, only three are useful for irrigation and drainage management while rest gates are not suitable for irrigation and drainage system. The sustainability of its natural resources like sunline energy are being threatened by the rubber dam, immense sand quarrying by local leaders and businessmen from 20 legal and illegal sand extraction stations, cutting of 11 oxbow bends over the last 100 years, two government irrigation projects, a total of 22 brickfields along the two banks of this river and mismanagement of these engineering activities. (HUMAYAIN et al. 2014)

 

Without participation of local communities the sustainable management and utilization of the ecosystem services cannot be imagined. The study for community involvement is also done. This is “COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT IN RIVER MANAGEMENT FOR ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AND LIVELIHOOD: A CASE STUDY OF HALDA RIVER IN BANGLADESH”   The objectives of this study aims at determining the communities’ perception, livelihood options from its ecosystem services, and willingness to participate in Halda River management.

The study showed that 51.40% respondents from surveyed households had a great concern about this river. Most of the respondents (49.53%) visit Halda River sometimes and 28.04% of the surveyed respondents’ main purpose of visiting this river was water transportation. About 64.5% people opined that natural resources of this river is depleting day by day. (HUMAYAIN et al. 2014)

 

By this literature review we found that, a lot of research have done with the river Halda. But this river has gained special interest in recent times for being the only tidal freshwater river in the world where major Indian carps spawn naturally. So, more research should be done with this river. Basically, to determine when the fish will lay the egg, Using Gis technology on the river of Halda is very needed.

 

Methodology: We about 36 students of 5th semester of Faculty of Forestry and Environmental Sciences make a survey to determine the anthropogenic environmental degradation in river and the causes behind it. We have make a questionnaires with 10 questions and conducted a random sampling survey in Modhona gat area.We have divided ourselves at different part of this area randomly. The surveyed area was Madarha, Urkirchor, Dokkhin Madarsha, Maddam Madarsha, Maheskram, Zia Bazar, Zele Para, Uttor Madarsha, Barua Para, and Majipara. We conducted this survey at morning to noon and we made another survey at afternoon at the adjacent part of Halda in Rawzan upazila.

For data collection we selected household randomly and the people who were interested. A well defined questionnaires is set to evaluate the causes anthropogenic environmental degradation, ranking environmental degradation, major environmental degradation in halda river ecosystem, impacts of environmental degradation on the local peoples livelihood and role of communities and governmental institutions in mitigating anthropogenic environmental degradation.

 

Data collection:

By the direct guideline of our respected teacher we interviewed the local people from the visited area under the well structured questionnaire set. We take data randomly that is there is no selective option for male or female or age based.

 

 

Data analysis:

Collected data were processed by Microsoft Excel and analyzed by statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS).

 

Results:

 

 

CAUSES OF DEGRADATION

CAUSES OF DEGRADATION

 

 

 MAJOR ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION

MAJOR ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION

 

RECOMMENDATION TO REDUCE DEGRADATION IN Halda River

RECOMMENDATION TO REDUCE DEGRADATION IN Halda River

 

Discussions:

 

From the result we found the major environmental degradation in the Halda river are river erosion, over flow, water pollution and water logging. Some other minor degradations are degradation of fish habitat and salinity intrusion. From the result we found that the main causes of degradation is discharge waste water, over exploitation of fish, dredging, siltation and sluice gate. The kaptai dam is also responsible for the causes of the anthropogenic environmental degradation.

By analyzing the results we have found that the major impacts of the degradation of the fish abundance, crop destruction and agricultural impossible. Besides job transformation plays a significant impacts for degradation of Halda river ecosystem. The results also give a recommendation to reduce the anthropogenic environmental degradation.

The main recommendation is construction of dam, awareness creation and introduction of co-management program.

 

Conclusion:

Halda River is one of the most resourceful rivers in Bangladesh. This river provides a number of products and services all-round the year to the communities living its vicinity. However, it has attained a very special identity and is frequently referred as a national natural heritage by being the only breeding and spawning ground for major Indian carps. Halda river fulfills two conditions fully and one condition by half among the four conditions of the UNESCO for being a site in world heritage. We hope that, Halda river will be a national natural heritage within few days and in future it will be a world heritage site. For this purpose, we should protect halda river from being degraded by anthropogenic causes. Besides, modern technology (like GIS, remote sensing) should be used for more fish production.

 

REFERENCES:

 

Akter, A., and Ali, M.H. (2012). Environmental flow requirements assessment in the Halda
River, Bangladesh. Hydrological Sciences Journal 57, 326–343.

Alam, M.S., Hossain, M.S., Monwar, M.M., and Hoque, M.E. (2013a). Assessment of fish
distribution and biodiversity status in Upper Halda River, Chittagong, Bangladesh. International
Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation 5, 349–357.

Alam, M.S., Hossain, M.S., Monwar, M.M., Hoque, M.E., Taimur, F.M., and others (2013b).
Check-list of bony fish collected from the Upper Halda River, Chittagong, Bangladesh. AACL
Bioflux 6, 333–338.

Kabir, H., Kibria, M., Jashimuddin, M., and Hossain, M.M. (2015). Conservation of a river for
biodiversity and ecosystem services: the case of the Halda–the unique river of Chittagong,
Bangladesh. International Journal of River Basin Management 13, 333–342.

Kabir, M., Kibria, M., Jashimuddin, M., Hossain, M.M., and others (2016a). COMMUNITY
INVOLVEMENT IN RIVER MANAGEMENT FOR ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AND
LIVELIHOOD: A CASE STUDY OF HALDA RIVER IN BANGLADESH. Environmental
Research Journal 10.

Kabir, M., Kibria, M., Jashimuddin, M., Hossain, M.M., and others (2016b). COMMUNITY
INVOLVEMENT IN RIVER MANAGEMENT FOR ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AND
LIVELIHOOD: A CASE STUDY OF HALDA RIVER IN BANGLADESH. Environmental
Research Journal 10.

www.haldariver.org

The post An analytical report on Halda River Bangladesh appeared first on Wiki Environment.

]]>
http://wikienvironment.org/halda-river/feed/ 0
Linear Measurement in survey you are searching for http://wikienvironment.org/linear-measurement-survey/ http://wikienvironment.org/linear-measurement-survey/#respond Mon, 24 Jul 2017 09:04:54 +0000 http://wikienvironment.org/?p=70 There are various techniques of making linear measurements, and their corresponding merit depends upon the degree of precision required. These methods are three types. The distances are measured actually in the case of direct measurements. On the ground with the help of a chain or a tape or any other instrument. In the optical methods, […]

The post Linear Measurement in survey you are searching for appeared first on Wiki Environment.

]]>
There are various techniques of making linear measurements, and their corresponding merit depends upon the degree of precision required. These methods are three types.

  • Direct measurements
  •  Measurements by optical means
  •  Electronic methods

The distances are measured actually in the case of direct measurements. On the ground with the help of a chain or a tape or any other instrument. In the optical methods, a telescope is used for taking observations and calculations are done for measuring the distances, such as in tachometer or triangulation. In the electronic methods, the distances are measured with instruments that rely upon on distribution, absorption and subsequent reception of either light waves or radio ray. The instruments that usually use in the electronic methods are

  • geodimeter
  • tellurometer
  •  The lambda position fixing system and
  •  the Decca Navigator

In the case of Geodimeter, the method of measurement is based on the propagation of modulated light waves. But for distance measurements, the other three instruments use radio waves. The various methods of measuring the distances directly are as follows:

  •  Pacing
  • Measurement with pedometer
  • Measurement with pedometer
  •  Measurement by odometer and speedometer

(1)Pacing Measurements:

Pacing Measurements of distances by pacing is chiefly confined to the preliminary surveys and explorations where a surveyor is called upon to do a rough survey as quickly as possible. It may also be used to check the distances measured by other means roughly.

The method consists in counting the number of paces between the two points of a line. The length of the line can then be computed by knowing the average length of the pace. The length of the pace varies with the individual and also with the nature of the ground. The inclination of the region and the speed of packing. A length of pace more nearly that of one’s natural step is preferable. The length of one’s natural step may be determined by walking on fair lap level ground over various lines of known lengths. One can soon learn to pace distances along the level. Unobstructed ground with a degree of accuracy pacing equivalent approximately to 1 in 100. However pacing Over rough ground on the slope may be difficult.

(2) Passometer:

Passometer is an instrument shaped like a watch and is carried in the pocket or attached to one leg. The motion of the body operates the mechanism of the instrument, and it automatically registers the number of paces, thus avoiding the monotony and strain of counting the paces, by the surveyor. The number of paces registered by the passometers can then be multiplied by the average length of the pace to get the distance.

Passometer in Linear Measurement

(3) Pedometer:

Pedometer is an instrument similar to the passometers except that, adjusted to the length of the pace of the person carrying it, is registers the total distance covered by any number of paces.

Pedometer in Linear Measurement

 

(4) Odometer and Speedometer:

The odometer is a device for displaying the number of revolutions of a wheel. The well-known speedometer works on this system. The odometer is suited to a wheel which is rolled along the line whose length is required. The number of revolutions registered by the odometer can then be multiplied by the circumference of the wheel to get the distance. Since the instrument registers the length of the surface passed over, its readings obtained on the undulating ground are inaccurate. If the route is smooth, the speedometer of an automobile can be used to measure the distance approximately.

Odometer-and-Speedometer in Linear Measurement

Is this article is helpful?Comment here if any question. Click to know all details about chain survey.

The post Linear Measurement in survey you are searching for appeared first on Wiki Environment.

]]>
http://wikienvironment.org/linear-measurement-survey/feed/ 0
Chain surveying procedure pdf ppt notes http://wikienvironment.org/chain-surveying/ http://wikienvironment.org/chain-surveying/#comments Thu, 01 Jun 2017 20:25:42 +0000 http://wikienvironment.org/?p=44 Chain surveying is the easiest type of survey in which area to be surveyed is divided into a number of triangles. Because all the geometrical figures only whose shape and size are determined when the length of the sides are known.  The perpendicular distance, called offsets, of various objects in the field from the line, […]

The post Chain surveying procedure pdf ppt notes appeared first on Wiki Environment.

]]>
Chain surveying is the easiest type of survey in which area to be surveyed is divided into a number of triangles. Because all the geometrical figures only whose shape and size are determined when the length of the sides are known.  The perpendicular distance, called offsets, of various objects in the field from the line, are measured and recorded in a book called field book. From theses records in the field book, the whole area can be plotted on a drawing sheet to a reduced variance scale.

Chain surveying instruments:

The following instruments are used in Chain surveying.  

  • Chain
  • Tape
  • Arrows
  • Ranging Rods
  • Offset Staff
  •  Optical Square

Different types of Chain in Chain surveying:

It is a steel wire with links connected by steel rings. It has brass handles at both ends. There are many types of chains of which the Engineer’s Chain and Gunter’s chain are commonly used in most of the country. The Engineers chain is 100 ft, long and Gunter’s chain 66 ft. The Engineer’s chain consists of 100 links each one a foot long and at every 10 links a tally is attached to facilitate reading. The Gunter’s chain is also divided into 100 links each link is 7.92 inches.

Types-of-chain in chain survey

Different Types of chain in chain survey

  In a metric, a small brass ring is given in every one-meter interval. Brass tallies are also given at each 5.0 m length of the chain. Every tally has a complex shape which indicates 5, 10, 15m from any one side of the chain. However, metric chains are prepared in 20 m and 30 m length.   Revenue chain is 33 ft long chain.It consists of 16 links. This chain is used for length measurements in feet & inches for small areas.
Revenue Chain in chain survey

Revenue Chain

  Steel bands are preferred than chains as they are more accurate and easy to use.  The disadvantages are they get broken down easily, and it’s difficult to service in the field. The length of the tape is 20 and 30 m, 12 to 16 mm wide and 0.3 to 0.6 mm thick. They are numbered at every meter. Brass studs divide them at every 20 cm.  
Steel Band or Band Chain in chain survey

Steel Band or Band Chain in chain survey

   

Testing and Adjustment of Chain:

Due to continuous use of chain gradually the length of the chin gets modified. Its length is shortened mainly due to warping of links. Its length is elongated either for stretching of the links or joints and opening out of the small rings. So, For actual work, it is important to test the chain time to time. We can test the chain with a steel tape or by a standard chain. Sometimes, it is useful to have a permanent test gauge established where the chain is tested. When the length of a chain is estimated at a pull of 8 kg at 20 0C, the length of the string should contain 20 m ± 5 mm or 30 m ± 8 mm, and for 20m and 30m long chain, the length should be close to within 2 mm. Following measures can be taken to accommodate the length of a chain. If chain is found to be too long it can be adjusted by………

  • By Locking up the joints of the rings if it found to be opened out
  • Removing one or more small rings
  • Reshaping damaged rings
  • Adjusting the links at the end Sample

  Again If the chain is found to be too short, it can be adjusted by……  

  • Opening the joints of the rings
  • Straightening the bent links
  • Adjusting the links at the end
  • Inserting new rings where necessary
  • By replacing one or more small circular rings by bigger ones

Testing and Adjustment of Chain in chain survey

Testing and Adjustment of Chain in chain survey

 Measuring Tapes used in Chain Surveying:

They may be either of steel or linen to measure short lengths. They are generally of 100 ft,50 ft, 66 ft or 33 ft, and are graduated in feet arid inches.  

Cloth or linen Tape:

Linen tapes are closely woven linen. This types of tapes surfaced to resist moisture. They are usually 10 m, 20 m, 25 m and 30 m long and 12 to 15 mm wide. They are normally used for offset measures. These tapes are light and flexible.

Fibre Glass Tape:

These tapes are alike to linen and plastic coated tapes.  These are made of glass fibre. They are relatively flexible, strong and nonconductive. These can be used in the proximity of electrical equipment. These tapes do not stretch or shrink due to changes in temperature or moisture or other stress. They are available in length of 20 m, 30m and 50 m length.  

Pegs:

These are wooden blocks of conical shape %sect in fixing stations.  

Pegs in chain survey

Pegs in chain survey

   

Arrow:

They are of steel wire 15 inches long pointed at one end, and the other end is looped for a convenience of handling. They are used for making chain length on the ground.  

 

Ranging Rods:

They are about 10 ft. Long, 1.5 inches diameter round or hexagonal wooden poles painted with black and white alternative bands Each band is of one-foot length.  

Offset Staff:

They are wooden rods 10 feet long. Each foot is painted black and white alternately. They are used for measuring short lengths.  

ranging-rod-offset-Optical-Square

ranging-rod-offset-Optical-Square

Optical Square:

It is used to find the foot of the perpendicular from a given object in the field to a given chain line to take the offset. It consists of a wedge-shaped hollow brass box of about 2 inches sides and 1.25 inches depth with a brass handle about 3 inches long fixed at the bottom. Two plane mirrors set at 45 degrees are fixed to the inclined sides of the box. There are two slits above these mirrors.   In using it, a ranging rod is held at an object for. Which an offset is to be taken. A man is holding the optical square in his right-hand stands on the chain line. He looks towards the front ranging rod on the chain line with the open face of the optical square towards the ranging rod at the object. Now the man looks through one mirror while the other mirror is turned towards the object. Then he walks along the chain line forwards and backward till he sights the image of the ranging rod at the object in the mirror and the front ranging led in the slit in the same line. The position of the man on the chain line gives the exact point at which the perpendicular from the object meets the chain line.  

Procedure of Chain surveying:

The entire operation of chain survey can be divided into three major groups namely, field work, keeping of records in the field book and plotting of data to prepare maps.

Field work in Chain surveying:

In includes reconnaissance. Selection of the station, measurement of lines and taking offsets of different objects in the field.

Reconnaissance:

This is the preliminary survey in which to the survey party will examine the plot to be surveyed in order to know as to how the works can be executed in the best possible ways. The party will note all details like roads, buildings, canals, ditches, culverts and the difficulties and obstacles that may arise during the carrying out of the work. The party should locate the suitable points for stations by driving pegs. Sometimes a small triangle or a circle is made around the stations and the pegs are inserted into the centers. The party should then make a rough sketch of the plot showing the possible stations and from there the arrangement of different lines. It is important to give a north line on the rough sketch and though the sketch is not prepared according to the scale, it should represent the approximate positions of the different things in the plot and hence to be a good guide for further work.

Stations:

These are points on the ground fixed by driving pegs. Every station should be located with respect to three permanent objects i.e. the distances from these objects to the stations should be measured very accurately and recorded in the field book. The advantage of taking this measurement is that if in future the peg at the station is lost, then it can be located again by knowing descriptions and distances of these objects. The selection of a particular station depends upon the fallowing important considerations:

  • The triangle should be a well-defined one, i.e. nearly equilateral triangle.
  • Every main station should be visible from the other two
  •  There should be a minimum number of obstacles in Ranging and chaining
  • The chain line should run near the boundary of the plot
  • The chain line should be as few as possible
  • The chain line should be over an approximately leveled ground
  • In the case of chaining along the road, it is always better to run chains on one side of the road to avoid interruptions by vehicles. It is better not to cross the road frequently
  • Offsets should not exceed one chain
  • Check and tie lines should be provided in sufficient number so that all the main lines, of sets and other details, can be checked thoroughly

 

Tie lines and check lines:

A tie line is one which connects two points on the two main lines of the triangle. It helps in taking offsets of the objects falling within the triangle and which are too far away from the main line. A checking line is also a tie line which helps in checking the accuracy of the work after plotting in a drawing sheet. A checking line or tie line is never extended beyond the main lines.

Measurement of lines and taking offsets:

In Fig the main station A is located with respect to three permanent objects and a ranging rod is fixed to the station. One ranging rod is fixed at main station B and another at an intermediate point in between A & B. The three rods will be in a straight line when only the intermediate rod is visible if a man looks from A to B. Now measurement of line AB is taken by the chain. The chain should be properly stretched so that there is no sag in it. As the measurement proceeds, offsets are taken on both side’s of the line AB and recorded in the field book. In this way, all the lines including tie and check lines are measured and offset taken and recorded in the field book.      

Advantages and disadvantages of chain Surveying:

  • This type of survey work is suited for a small plain ground
  • It requires simple instruments
  • Plotting of maps is very simple and easy

But this type of surveying is not suitable for undulation land where chaining operation is tedious and subject to errors. This method is not generally recommended for a crowded city with a large number of buildings and obstacles because it cannot be divided. into well-conditioned triangles. In the case of route surveying. i.e the survey work of a road, irrigation canal, railways, water and sewer lines, tunneling etc, this method is not recommended at all.

 

Types of obstacles in chain Surveying and and Solutions of obstacles in chain Surveying:

  Sometimes it will be observed that many obstructions like rivers, canals, ponds. thick jungles, ditches, buildings, etc. lie on the chain line. These obstacles can be avoided in chaining operation by applying some fundamental geometric rules.  

 Drawing a perpendicular from a point on the chain line:

Types of obstacles in chain Surveying   AC is taken 4 units on the chain line XY.AB and BC 3 and 5 units respectively. Then ⟨BAC will be 90° at point A on the chain line because if the sum of the squares on two sides of the triangle is equal to the third. The included angle between the two sides is a right angle (BC²=AB²+AC²)    

Drawing a perpendicular from an external point of chain line:

how to overcome obstacles in chain survey pdf   XY is the chain line and P is the external point. Keeping the zero end of the tape at P and swinging the tape along the chain line the point of minimum tape length on the chain line is noted which should be the foot of the perpendicular. Because the perpendicular is the shortest distance.  

Drawing a line parallel to the chain line:

obstacles during chain survey Let XY be the chain line and Q is a point through which a line parallel to the chain line is to be drawn. From Q, perpendicular QP is drawn on XY at P. Point R is now selected on XY and RS is drawn the perpendicular to XY at R in such a way that RS=PQ; QS is joined which is now parallel to XY.   In Fig (b), point R is selected on XY. QR is joined and bisected at O. Another point P on XY is selected and PO is joined. Now PO is extended to S so that PO=OS. QS is joined. QS is parallel to XY.     The following are the geometrical figures by which. chaining can be done in spite of obstacles lying on the chain line.   obstacles in chain surveying ppt       obstacles to both chaining and ranging   How chaining operation can be done when it is obstructed by a bend of a canal, has been shown in above fig (a) which is self-explanatory.   Fig  (b) shows the procedure of chaining operation when it is obstructed by a river. A and P are the two points close to the bank on opposite sides of the river. At P a perpendicular PR is drawn. Q is the midpoint of PR, At R again a perpendicular RS is drawn. Point S is fixed by extending AQ. From two similar triangles APO and QRS, RS=AP.         method used to overcome a pond in chain survey pdf     types of obstacles in chaining   The first figure shows the method of chaining when it is obstructed by a hill or ridge. A and D are the foot-hill points, each hidden from view of the other on the either side of the hill. Points B and C are chosen in such a way that a man at B can easily see ranging rods at C and D, while at C, can see the ranging rods at B and A. Now C puts B in the line with A, and B puts C in the line with D. Hence, A, B, C, D are in the same line. If the hill is wide enough, then it can be chained in the usual manner. The method is also known as reciprocal ranging.   The second figure shows chaining through a thick wood. The figure is self-explanatory. From the Fig we found that AC²= √(AB²+BC²).     chaining across obstacles buildingThe above figure shows the chaining across a building. In fig (a) two points A and B are taken on the chain line and two perpendiculars AC and BD of equal length are erected. The diagonals AD and BC which should be equal, are checked to have the correct result. The line CD is produced past the building and two points G and H are taken on it. Two perpendiculars GE and HF equal in length to Ac or BD are drawn. In this case also diagonals GF and HE are checked. Now ABEF is a straight line and DG=BE. Another method has been shown in Figure (b) Where e point B has been taken on the chain line and Perpendicular BC erected. A is another Point on the chain line so that BC=BA. This makes the angle BAC=45°.  AC is joined and extended to D which is roughly opposite the middle point in the length of the building. At D, a perpendicular DF is set to AD, Making DF=DA, On DF, Point G is taken in such a way that DG=DC. By the procedure, explained above ∠GFE is made 45°. Points E and F lie on the straight line AB produced. Now CG=BE.  

Chaining along the sloping ground:

  Chaining along the sloping ground First method: During chaining along a sloping surface, the horizontal projection or a chain line is found by the process shown in above Figure. In this method, a portion of the chain, 15 ft to 30 ft is generally used. The length of the chain, of course, depends upon the steepness of the sloping surface. The chain is held horizontally with zero ends of it at P on the ground, while the point Q1 vertically below the other end of the Chain at Q is found by means of a drop-arrow. The next step is commenced from point Q1 and the process is continued until the whole horizontal distance is measured. This method is also known as stepping.   Chaining along the sloping ground method 2     Second Method: In this method, the sloping length and the angle of inclination are measured and the horizontally projected length is calculated mathematically. From Figure The xy=L1=measured distance along the slope, ZX=h and θ=angle of inclination, which is measured by instruments such as Clinometer. Abney level, etc. Cosθ= L ⁄ L1 so, L = L1 Cosθ   Third Method: If the difference of height h between the points X and Y are known (Using leveling instrument), L can be calculated. L=√(L1²-h²)   Example:  The distance between two points  X and Y measured along a sloping surface is 12.4 chains. Calculate the horizontal projected distance when the angle of inclination is 10°30’. Also find the same when elevations of X and Y above mean sea-level are 740 and 840 respectively. L=L1, Cosθ=1240 Cos 10°30’= 1220 ft. Again, L=√(L1²-h²) =√((1240)²-(840-740)²) =1237 ft.    

Types of Errors in chain surveying:

  It is always very difficult practically to measure length accurately. The permissible-error with a steel tape is 1 in 2000 in a flat country and 1 in 3000 for a rough undulating country. The error in chaining may happen in various ways. Sometimes there may be mistakes or confusion in reading the tallies such as 30 and 70. There may be also omission of chain lengths due to miscounting or when chaining is interupted by buildings, canals, etc. The error may also be either cumulative or compensa-ting. Cumulative errors are these which may either go on increasing or decreasing when a chain is shorter or longer than its standard length. When the chain is too short, the measured length of the line is too great. i.e., greater than its true length and therefore, the error is positive and the correction is negative. Again when the chain is too long the measured length is too short, i.e., less than its true length. So the error is negative and the correction is positive. Compensating errors are those which cancel one an other and finally their total effect remains approximately same.   While stretching a chain one may pull it less than the standard pull of that chain. Again one may stretch it with a greater pull than the standard one. As a result the measured length in the former case will be less and in the latter case will be higher. But when these two lengths are added, the two errors will compensate each other.    

Correction of Errors in chain surveying:

 

(a) Correction in Length, Area and Volume :

Let Le be the incorrect length of the chain and Lc the  correct length of the chain. The correct distance, L= Le ⁄ Lc X measured length by the the incorrect chain or tape. The correct area, A =(Le ⁄ Lc )² X Calculated incorrect area The correct volume, V= (Le ⁄ Lc )³ X Calculated incorrect volume   Example: The road from Dhaka to Mirpur is actually 25320 ft long. This distance was measured by an Engineer’s defective chain and was found to be 25273 ft. How much correction does the chain need ? L= (Le ⁄ Lc) X measured incorrect length Le = (L * Lc) / Measured length =(25320 * 100)/ 25270 = 1000.197 ft So the chain should be shortened by 0.197 ft   Example : The length and breadth of a plot of land were measured by an Engineer’s chain exactly 100 ft. in length at the beginning. But it was found to be 100.3 ft. long at the end of the survey work. The area of the plot drawn to a scale 1 inch=100 ft. was 25.60 sq. inches. What was the true area of the plot 7 True area A =(Le ⁄ Lc )² X Calculated incorrect area   =(100.3/100)² * 25.6 sq. in =25.70 sq.in From the scale on the map 1 in²= 100²=10,000 sq. ft. Area of the plot= (25.70 x 10,000) / 43560 (1 acre=43560 sq ft.) =5.89 acres Example : The length, breadth and depth of a pond were measured by an incorrect Gunter’s chain. The volume of the pond was calculated to be 1,60,000 cft. The chain was tested at the end of the measurement of the tank. True volume,= (Le ⁄ Lc )³ ×  incorrect volume =(65.8/66)² × 160000 =159200 cft  

(b) Correction for Pull :

Sometimes, a steel tape is pulled in excess of the pull at standardization, then the correction to be made is as follows : Correction. Cp = L(Fi − Fs)/ AE   Where L=length of tape, A=cross-sectional area of tape. Fi=pull applied in the field, Fs = pull at standardization, and E= Young’s Modulus of Elasticity ( for steel, E=30 x 106 p.s i. ) Since the effect of pull on tape is to make the measured length too short the correction is always positive.   Example : A steel tape of 100 ft. length, standardized at 25 lb. pull, was used in the field with a pull of 35 lbs. The cross-sectional area of the tape is 0.025 sq. inch. Take the value of Young’s Modulus of Elasticity for steel, 30 x 106 p.s i. Calculate the correction for excess pull.

Correction = 100(35−25)/(0.025×30×106 )

                     = 0.00134 ft   (positive)

 

(C) Correction for sag:

 

Correction, C3 = W²L/ 24 Fr²

  Where, W=wt. of the tape in lb., L=length of the tape in ft. and Fr =pull applied in the field in lb.  Since the effec of sag on tape is to make the measured length too large the correction is always negative.   Example : A steel tape of 100 ft. length weighing L lbs. As pulled with a force of 20 lbs. in the field to measure a certain distance. Calculate the correction for sag.  

Correction, C3 = W²L/ 24 Fr²

=(1.2)²×100/(24×20²)

=0.15 ft (negative)

 

Temperature correction:

Since the length of the tape is increased as temperature is raised, where measured distance in too small, it is therefore. essential to apply this correction.  

Correction, L= a (tf- ts) × L

  Where, L=measured length in ft., tf=temperature at which the tape was standardized, ts=temperature at which the tape is used in the field, and a =coefficient of thermal expansion of the tape per degree °F per foot length. The co-efficient of thermal expansion of steel varies from 5.5 x 10-6 to 6.85 x 10-6 per degree °F. The sign of the correction is greater or ‘less than ts. The steel tapes are generally standardized  at 65°F.   Example : A distance of 1840 ft. was measured with a steel tape which was exactly 100 ft. long at 65°F. The temperature during measurement in the field vials 85°F.

Record keeping in Chain Surveying or Field book in chain surveying:

  All the details including a rough sketch of different types of stations, offsets, etc. in the field are recorded in a book called Field Book. It is an Important book or document which should be maintained carefully. It is 9″x 5″  in size with two parallel lines ruled longitudinally in the center of every page. These two parallel lines are imaginary lines representing the chain line and the space in between has no existence in the field. The record keeping starts from the bottom of the end page of the field book. A rough sketch of the plot is drown beforehand on the last page for reference. Neat figures and sketches with clearness in representing points to which offsets are taken should be properly maintained.  

Plotting details in Chain Surveying:

  Before plotting the details of, chain survey on a drawing paper a suitable scale Should be chosen first. Because drawings are prepared to a reduced scale. A scale is the ratio between ground the actual length on the ground and the corresponding length of the line on the map. For an example, when the scale of a map is 1 inch=100 ft it indicates a length of 100 ft. on ground being equal to 1 inch on the map. A scale may also be donated by term representative fraction which is the ratio of 1 inch to the distance on the ground both reduced to inches. As for an example, the representative fraction of 1 inch=100 ft. scale is 1/1200 i.e. 1 inch to 1200 inches.   The triangle is the first plotted from its known according to a suitable reduce scale. Then the lines and check lines are drawn and checked the accuracy of the work. New to the accuracy of the work. New to plot offsets like railroads, trees, building, electric posts etc. lines are taken up one by one the the offsets are laid down on either side of the lines. When the offsets are plotted the conventional signs for offsets are put in.    

Chain surveying Notes or chain surveying exercise:

Examine the following statements very carefully and identify whether they are true or false:   (a) Chain survey is a type of survey in which the survey is done with the help of a chain and tape only.   b)Chain lines can be measured with the help of a chain only.   c) Tie lines are generally extended outside the main triangle. d)In an optical square the mirrors are placed at an angle of 60° to each other. e) Right angles can also be set with the help of a chain and a tape. f) The  space between two parallel lines in the field book has no existence in the field. g) Check lines are also tie lines. h) Chain surveying is suitable for crowded cities i) Gunter chain is most suitable for measuring areas j) A chain survey is a class of survey in which a triangle is formed in the field whose sides are used as reference lines. k)In Chain Survey angles are measured with considerable accuracy L) The station are the points from which measurements are taken up to any object in the field m) If the triangle is too big then it may be necessary to run few more straight lines within the triangle n) It is not necessary for the tie Lines to touch any other tie line or main line o) The main lines and the tie lines have common name known as chain lines   p) The offsets are also chain line measured up to different objects in the field q) Comparing the plotted length of the tie lines on the map with the measured length in the field the accuracy of the survey may be determined r) The start with as big a triangle as possible is formed and subsequently the area inside is subdivided by tie lines s) Chain is used for measuring the chain lines and tape is used for measuring the offsets   t) The offsets should not be more than the full length of the tape measuring them   u) The ranging rods which are painted in red and white are used for fixing stations also   v) Arrows are used for aligning chain lines  

Some questions about Chain surveying or chain surveying Notes:

  • What is a ranging rod ? Why it is painted in different colors ?
  • What is an optical square ? Explain its working principle with neat sketch. What are the sources of error in an optical square ? How can you detect them ?
  • Discuss the procedures of chaining when it is obstructed by a bend of a canal, a building, a pond and a bush. Show with sketches.
  • What is reconnaissance survey ? Why a sketch map of the plot to be surveyed is prepared ?
  • Write notes on : (a) Offset (b) Field Book (c) Cross-staff (d) Reciprocal Ranging (e) Stepping Method of Chaining (f) Well-conditioned Triangle (g) Sag Correction

Some mathematical problems about Chain surveying or chain surveying Notes for practice:

  • The true length of a line was known to be 1500 ft. The line was measured with a 100 ft. tape and found to 1505 ft. Calculate the correct length of the tape. Ans: 99.66 ft.
  • The distance between b two sub-stations was found to be 5305 ft. when measured by an engineers chain and 7946 links by Gunter’s chain. Both the chains were incorrect. What correction is needed in the Engineers’ chain if the Gunter’s chain is 0.4 link too long Ans: 0.748 too short
  • A draftsman measured a line on a map prepared by cbain survey by 1 inch= 80 ft. scale and found it to be 3200 ft. long on the ground. Later he discovered that he made a mistake and me scale was 1 inch=60 ft, Find the correct distance in his calculation. Ans: 2400.0 ft
  • On a map covering an area of 2.5 sq. miles, the scale is by mistake recorded to be 12 inch=1 mile with the result that the area comes to be 4.sq. miles and 2844 sq. chains. Determine the correct scale of the map.  Ans: 16 inches=1 mile
  • A 103 ft. tape 13 suspended between its ends under a pull of 20 lbs. The wt. of the tape is 1.5 lbs. Calculate thds connected length cf the tape between its ends. Ans: 99.976 ft
  • A survey was commenced at 7:30 A.m. when the temperature was 65°F with a 100 ft steel tape which was correct. After chaining a distance of 12650 ft. the work was suspended at 1:30 P.M. when the temperature was 102°F. Find the correct distance. Take the coefficient of expansion of steel =6.25 x 10-6″ per deg. °F. Ans:12,652.92 ft. 16.
  • A line was measured with a 20 m chain and found to be 98.4 m long. The chain was subsequently found to be 0.02 m too short. What was the correct measurement of the line ? Ans: 98.3 m
  • Chaining along a slope the first 30 ft. were on a slope of 8° and the next 20 ft were on a slope of 5° What is the true horizontal distance ? Ans: 49.633 ft
  • A chain line terminates at an inaccessible point D. Chaining is continued up to point B and a perpendicular BC is laid out 20 ft. in length. At C a right angle DCA is erected; A being on the chain Line. BA is measured and found to bo 8.62 ft. What is the distance from B to the inaccessible point D?  Ans:46.4 ft.

 

Chain surveying pdf Download:

Chain surveying pdf is provided here. Chain surveying notes pdf, Chain surveying procedure pdf, Chain surveying obstacle pdf, Chain surveying error pdf are available here. You can download this pdf easily.  

Chain surveying notes pdf download:

chain surveying notes pdf

Types of obstacles in chain Surveying pdf download:

Types of obstacles in chain Surveying pdf download

Types of errors in chain Surveying pdf download:

Types of Errors in chain surveying pdf download

Chain surveying procedure pdf download:

Chain surveying procedure pdf download

Chain surveying ppt download:

  Chain surveying ppt is provided here. Chain surveying notes ppt, Chain surveying  ppt, Chain surveying obstacle ppt, Chain surveying error ppt are available here. You can download this ppt easily.  

Chain surveying Notes ppt download:

Chain surveying Notes ppt download

Chain surveying obstacles ppt download:

Chain surveying obstacles ppt download

Chain surveying ppt download:

Chain surveying ppt download

Types of Errors in chain surveying ppt download:

Types of Errors in chain surveying ppt download

Chain surveying video for clear overview:

  Watch this chain surveying video for clear overview.   Click here to see more terms.

Conclusion:

  Chain surveying is the easiest survey. Hope by reading this article you can understand all about chain surveying. If you have any question about chain surveying please comment below here. happy Chain surveying.      

The post Chain surveying procedure pdf ppt notes appeared first on Wiki Environment.

]]>
http://wikienvironment.org/chain-surveying/feed/ 1
What is the meaning Cyclone Mora http://wikienvironment.org/meaning-cyclone-mora/ http://wikienvironment.org/meaning-cyclone-mora/#respond Tue, 30 May 2017 04:46:37 +0000 http://wikienvironment.org/?p=6 Why is the name of Cyclone “Mora” mora? Many have the curiosity about this. Mora is a deep depression over the Bay of Bengal. According to Indian Meteorological Department Mora is gaining strength and has further turned in a great storm. Mora is getting more severe during next 6 hours. It will affect the southern […]

The post What is the meaning Cyclone Mora appeared first on Wiki Environment.

]]>
Why is the name of Cyclone “Mora” mora? Many have the curiosity about this. Mora is a deep depression over the Bay of Bengal. According to Indian Meteorological Department Mora is gaining strength and has further turned in a great storm. Mora is getting more severe during next 6 hours.
It will affect the southern and southeast part of Bangladesh, some part of India and Sri Lanka.

What is the meaning Cyclone Mora:

The name of the cyclone is given by Thailand. It is a Thai word. The meaning of the Mora cyclone is “star of the sea”.

From 1945, there is a system to give the name any cyclone in tropical areas. The names are predetermined. The system of naming storms (tropical cyclones) began years ago in order to supportin the quick description of storms in warning messages because names are assumed.It is assumed that annexing names to storms makes it easier for the media to report on tropical cyclones.
By this system, the upcoming cyclone in the tropical region is Ockhi, Sagar, Mekunu, Daye , Luban , Titli , Gigum and Phethai.

Here is the latest news about Cyclone Mora in Bay of Bengal……

Cyclone Mora in Bay of Bengal to intensify further, Heavy rains in Northeast India

 

The post What is the meaning Cyclone Mora appeared first on Wiki Environment.

]]>
http://wikienvironment.org/meaning-cyclone-mora/feed/ 0
Encourage using odd teams and underpowered units to beat trials http://wikienvironment.org/encourage-using-odd-teams-and-underpowered-units-to-beat-trials/ http://wikienvironment.org/encourage-using-odd-teams-and-underpowered-units-to-beat-trials/#respond Wed, 29 Oct 2014 09:19:07 +0000 http://wikienvironment.org/?p=334 mario rabbids kingdom battle gold edition uk Designer Replica Bags The prototype SAW robot, which is made of a series of rigid, 3 D printed plastic links attached to a metal helix rotated by a motor, looks to be about twice the size of a ballpoint pen. The wave movement created by its motor enables […]

The post Encourage using odd teams and underpowered units to beat trials appeared first on Wiki Environment.

]]>
mario rabbids kingdom battle gold edition uk

Designer Replica Bags The prototype SAW robot, which is made of a series of rigid, 3 D printed plastic links attached to a metal helix rotated by a motor, looks to be about twice the size of a ballpoint pen. The wave movement created by its motor enables the automaton to crawl across different surfaces at speeds buy replica bags of up to 22.4 inches (57 centimeters) per second, climb and even crawl through a tunnel by touching the sides. replica bags There’s also a replica wallets waterproof version that can swim. Designer Replica Bags

aaa replica designer handbags Ive had a few things I tried to collect, but they became impractical for one reason or another.my dads a truck driver, and when I was in highschool he started getting me snow globes best replica bags from different states, but then he stopped years ago and now he doesnt go buy replica bags online across states anymore.I tried collecting walking dead action figures. I have 3. But they pretty expensive. aaa replica designer handbags

Fake Designer Bags My Mom is one of those Chinese women who never goes out without wearing heels. ( She told me to start wearing heels at 14 but I stopped after I moved out to college.) She is a single mother who constantly makes me carry her heavy bags. Even at 65 she can stop wearing heels. Fake Designer Bags

Handbags Replica Payload’s affects on braking also apply not only to weight but also replica designer bags to the distribution of the cargo [source: Happian Smith]. Payload can effectively shift the center of gravity in a truck by placing a lot of replica designer bags wholesale weight in the back. However, because the same weight will not always be distributed in the same way in the back of the truck, brakes and steering can still be aaa replica bags affected differently depending on what actually constitutes the payload. Handbags Replica

Designer Fake Bags You will feel uncomfortable on the come up, high replica bags but just remember that it fades quickly. designer replica luggage Just focus on your friends, good vibes, and the music. If you ever seen a messed up vhs tape where the screen gets wobbly and lines go up and down the screen, that was pretty much what I felt. Designer Fake Bags

replica handbags online Keep it civil and on topic. Comments or posts that are disrespectful or replica bags online encourage harassment of others (including witch hunts of any kind) are not allowed.The only fix I have for this currently is high end replica bags to turn off windows update and stay away from KB4100347 KB4343909Downside to this is that I not able to download any new Nvidia drivers. I forced to use a driver that goes back to Mars replica designer backpacks (Before 1803 released) If I try to search for new nvidia cheap designer bags replica drivers now, replica bags china it get an error and inform me that I using an old Windows version. replica handbags online

wholesale replica designer handbags Allows rwst in bundesliga and pokal games. Gnabry must step up, because the inevitable will happen when robbery get injured and we rely to plan b of muller crossing aimlessly down the wing. I hope Coman recovers quickly tho as he’s the most influential player at times.”No, I don’t think so,” Sneijder told beIN SPORTS, when asked if Massimiliano Allegri’s men will win the Champions League in the wake of Ronaldo’s arrival in Turin.. wholesale replica designer handbags

Replica Handbags There is also the Style Store for the Big and Tall in Glendale. They replica bags buy online have a lot of suit options off the rack and are a bit more upscale than DXL. 2432 E 62nd street, 46220.If you go to the either place around lunchtime, there are a number of good options close by for eating. Replica Handbags

Replica Bags Wholesale Dont go to a military sub spewing hateful shit about something https://www.replicahandbagstc.com you literally have no clue about. This is supposed to be a place for people to chuckle and poke fun at newly enlisted fresh out of basic training “boots” as they called. Not for you to use this as a platform for whatever bullshit that shit up there was.. Replica Bags Wholesale

purse replica handbags Just took a lesson with my partner the other day only to be informed that they had increased their prices from $80 to $100 per lesson and made replica bags from china student and adult prices replica handbags exactly the same (what the point of having a student price then?). I feel really bretrayed and my coach thinks we not serious competitors because we can afford to come to him often. We done well competitively but of course always want to keep working. purse replica handbags

Replica Designer Handbags Weigh yourself every day (preferably in the morning following the same routine) to create a weekly average. Stick to your diet and exercise plan for a couple of weeks, then see which way your average is trending maintain your diet if you happy with the numbers, or +/ 250 calories if you unhappy. Repeat for another two weeks, adjust again as necessary.Like all things fitness, starting off can feel frustratingly slow, but if you take high quality designer replica the time to properly learn how to track and adjust caloric 7a replica bags wholesale intake now, it pay off bigly down the road.. Replica Designer Handbags

KnockOff Handbags Keep it civil and on topic. Comments or posts that are disrespectful or encourage harassment of others (including witch hunts of any kind) are not allowed. This subreddit is suitable for high quality replica bags both Office warriors and newbies. 3 of my neighbors got together after only 2 months of me owning the car and sued me. Now it looks like I may be forced to sell my condo luxury replica bags I just bought, and lose my $25,000 down payment to real estate fees. What type of lawyer do I need for something like this? Any ideas would be greatly appreciated.. KnockOff Handbags

cheap replica handbags In the morning, the cops come and I escape in one of their uniforms. I tell her to meet me in best replica bags online Mexico, but I go to Canada. I don trust good quality replica bags her. That make a lot of people happy, I think. Encourage using odd teams and underpowered units to beat trials, and make it a sensible option to actually spend 40 NRG re beating best replica designer bags trials. Maybe put a limit on it so only the best replica designer most recent 3 trials would still pay out like that so people don just farm the white dragon or intangir or something.. cheap replica handbags

Fake Handbags Also, I want my Pi to be portable and stay lightweight. From what I seen, with battery, keyboard, and display add ons, they get klunky. So if I were to add on a keyboard and track pad or a separate mouse altogether AND a battery that can support my baby for 5+ hours at once, what do you geniuses recommend Fake Handbags.

The post Encourage using odd teams and underpowered units to beat trials appeared first on Wiki Environment.

]]>
http://wikienvironment.org/encourage-using-odd-teams-and-underpowered-units-to-beat-trials/feed/ 0
Du må bygge tillit før du lager sales http://wikienvironment.org/du-ma-bygge-tillit-for-du-lager-sales/ http://wikienvironment.org/du-ma-bygge-tillit-for-du-lager-sales/#respond Tue, 28 Oct 2014 00:28:14 +0000 http://wikienvironment.org/?p=888 I tillegg vil de nye statlige protokollene arbeide mot å stoppe eller i det minste forsinke canada goose outlet noen av de narkotikasøkende atferdene som markerer reseptbelagte pilleravhengige. Det inkluderer doktorgradshopping, praksis med å gå til flere leger med samme eller lignende klager uten å avsløre at andre har blitt konsultert. Leger vil også slutte […]

The post Du må bygge tillit før du lager sales appeared first on Wiki Environment.

]]>
I tillegg vil de nye statlige protokollene arbeide mot å stoppe eller i det minste forsinke canada goose outlet noen av de narkotikasøkende atferdene som markerer reseptbelagte pilleravhengige. Det inkluderer doktorgradshopping, praksis med å gå til flere leger med samme eller lignende klager uten å avsløre at andre har blitt konsultert. Leger vil også slutte å fylle på eller erstatte resepter som dukker opp eller mangler på noen måte.

canada goose jakke herre Canada Goose Parka Temperate regnskoger er sjeldne og finnes bare på kysten av Nord-Amerika, New Zealand, Tasmania, Chile og Argentina. Temperate Rain Forests regnes som en av de mest truede skogene i verden. The Great Bear Rain Forest regnes som en temperert regnskog fordi den grenser Stillehavet, er nær fjellene og det blir mye nedbør. Canada Goose Parka canada goose jakke herre

canada goose jakker dame Hvis du er nybegynner, er det viktig å følge noen gode snowboardtips før du begynner å lære enkle canada goose jakke snowboard tricks. Det vil sikre at du har en trygg canada goose salg og tilfredsstillende start på dine snowboardopplevelser. Her er noen grunnleggende forslag som vil sikre at du kan ha en utrolig opplevelse canada goose norge i bakkene canada goose importør norge mens snowboarding canada goose jakker dame

canada goose outlet Canada Goose online Artikkelen fortsetter å si at selvfølgelig har det vært debatter om effekten av denne metode for utvinning vil ha på miljøet. Jeg sier lykke til med den ene når det gjelder nummer én, amerikanernes behov for jobber, to, våre bekymringer om økende avhengighet av utenlandske land for fossilt brensel og kostnaden. Jeg er bekymret for at dette vil stoppe prosessen med å finne sikrere metoder ofclean energi for vårt land men.Canada Goose online canada goose outlet

canada goose salg Det var en ødelagt samtale, og de mistet signalet etter det. De av oss som lette etter dem, visste ikke nøyaktig når de forlot Roatan for Utila. Vår oppdagelse fra å stille spørsmål på øya var en mye senere canada goose norge forhandler avgang mellom 10:00 og 3Am søndag morgen.Canada Goose salg canada goose salg

canada goose jakke Canada Goose Outlet Finne den type brukte biler i Phoenix som du virkelig ønsker kan https://www.canada-goose-jakker.com være vanskelig. Mesteparten av tiden må du møte svindel som skal få deg til å miste hardt opptjente penger, og du kan ende opp med et kjøretøy som trenger reparasjoner annenhver dag. Det er et dårlig tilfelle scenario hvis du til slutt bruker mer på reparasjoner enn du faktisk sparer ved å kjøpe en bruktbil i stedet for en ny. Canada Goose Outlet canada goose jakke

canada goose Canada Goose Jackets Jeg har alt sammen, har gått forbi det første systemet BIOS sjekker og så fikk jeg meldingen ‘Det oppstod en diskfeil. canada goose dunjakke Trykk CTR + ALT + DEL for å starte på nytt’. Å treffe CTL + ALT + DEL startet ikke systemet. ‘Det var fem personer som jobbet i restauranten fredag ​​kveld da mistenkte gikk inn. Han presset en kunde som sto foran seg og trakk en pistol ut. De andre sprang bak disken, men Sharath snudde seg og begynte å løpe i motsatt retning da pistolmannen åpnet ild. Canada Goose Jackets canada goose

canada goose jakker herre Jeg tilbrakte omtrent 3 timer på den. Sikkerhetskopiere ting bare i tilfelle. Rydde opp ting som å avinstallere noen programmer som ikke behøvde å være der, ren installasjon av skjermkortdrivere, og jeg defragged harddrivene både canada goose norge nettbutikk i canada goose outlet norge XP og en oppstart opp defragment. Øvelse av avslappningsteknikk som yoga er en utmerket kur for å forhindre overdreven onani problemer som nattfall, semen lekkasje og svak ereksjon. Denne psykologiske behandlingen har vist seg canada goose billig å være svært gunstig for å forbedre over hele trivsel for person. Det hjelper til med å forbedre stemmestabilitet og reduserer risikoen for over masturbation problem.canada canada goose norge nettbutikk ekte goose black friday sale canada goose jakker herre

canada goose jakke dame Ayurvedisk livsstil er faktisk fokusert på å skape direkte tilpasning mellom disse tre komponentene; sinnet, kroppen og ånden. Legemidlet hentet fra denne vitenskapen er helt naturlig, mye brukt og også svært effektiv. Omtrent 90 prosent av den indiske befolkningen tror på denne medisinen canada goose jakke dame

canada goose victoria parka billige Canada Goose De under dybde fantastiske anmeldelser av GA5153 ble skrevet canada goose jakke oslo av våre VW forums fans phant0m, han elsker virkelig våre produkter og er fornøyd med våre produkter. Håper du vil elske våre produkter også etter å ha sett det, takk mye på forhånd: Kjøpte GA5153 Android Car DVD til GTI, og det er en utmerket enhet! Folk må innse at disse enhetene er ANDROID-baserte, de er ikke en stykke kake å bruke. Det vil være noen tweaking du må gjøre for å tilpasse det til å jobbe som du vil. Canada Goose canada goose victoria parka

canada goose dame Canada Goose Coats Det var på dette stykke eiendom at far min begynte å hagearbeid. En av våre mange hager mystisk hadde gigantiske råvarer, ville vokse omtrent alt, og vi trodde vi var veldig gode. Inntil vår nabo kom over og spurte hvorfor vi hadde plantet en hage på våre leech field.canada goose jakker canada goose dame

billig grunnen til at jeg la til formål sist er fordi det virkelig burde være på bunnen av listen over prioriteringer. Selv om dette kanskje høres rart i starten, husk at et nettsted er en ressurs først og en annen virksomhet. Du må bygge tillit før du lager sales.buy billig billig

canada goose norge Canada Goose Online Informasjon som finnes på denne siden, leveres av en uavhengig tredjeparts innholdsleverandør. Oppriktig og dette nettstedet gir ingen garantier eller representasjoner i forbindelse med dette. Betydningen av estetikk i emballasje har vokst på grunn av behovet for produktdifferensiering som følge av høy konkurranse Canada Goose Online canada goose norge.

The post Du må bygge tillit før du lager sales appeared first on Wiki Environment.

]]>
http://wikienvironment.org/du-ma-bygge-tillit-for-du-lager-sales/feed/ 0
I think that explains canada goose outlet los angeles a canada http://wikienvironment.org/i-think-that-explains-canada-goose-outlet-los-angeles-a-canada/ http://wikienvironment.org/i-think-that-explains-canada-goose-outlet-los-angeles-a-canada/#respond Fri, 24 Oct 2014 10:52:12 +0000 http://wikienvironment.org/?p=946 canada goose coats Onetime head canada goose outlet store toronto of state police has a really canada goose coats canadian goose jacket The perp name: John DiFava, formerly the superintendent of the breathtakingly corrupt MSP, now chief of the MIT Police. canadian goose jacket canada goose coats on sale Let go straight to the MBTA […]

The post I think that explains canada goose outlet los angeles a canada appeared first on Wiki Environment.

]]>
canada goose coats Onetime head canada goose outlet store toronto of state police has a really canada goose coats

canadian goose jacket The perp name: John DiFava, formerly the superintendent of the breathtakingly corrupt MSP, now chief of the MIT Police. canadian goose jacket

canada goose coats on sale Let go straight to the MBTA police report. canada goose coats on sale

canada goose approached DiFava and told him to get off the tracks. DiFava looked up and said, one second lady. I again told DiFava to exit the track and he complied. I told DiFava to empty the stones from the plastic bag. DiFava responded, the (bleep), like I committed a (bleeping) crime lady. I need these rocks for my mom planter. This guy state pension alone official canada goose outlet is $123,764 a canada goose outlet 80 off year. I asked MIT how much he makes as chief, but they wouldn tell me. He can buy his own rocks, he has to, well, steal them, from the MBTA? canada goose

buy canada goose jacket cheap But he used to be a canada goose outlet seattle trooper. I think that explains canada goose outlet los angeles a canada goose outlet orlando lot. At least 46 troopers the ones who are currently suspended and/or indicted can feel the colonel pain. Busted! buy canada goose jacket cheap

canada goose deals Multiple calls were placed to DiFava yesterday in an attempt to get his side of the story of the rocks for Ma planter, and his encounter with the local canada goose outlet miami constabulary. canada goose deals

Through MIT, he https://www.canadagoosestorevip.com issued this statement:

cheap Canada Goose was collecting a few small rocks for a plant I was taking to my mother for Mother Day. I meant no disrespect to a fellow law enforcement officer, apologized to the officer at the time and regret this entire incident. did it for his ma! Top o the world, canada goose outlet edmonton ma, top o the world! cheap Canada Goose

MIT official statement, in part:

Canada Goose Parka DiFava notified his immediate supervisor the first day after the incident occurred. MIT discussed the details with Chief DiFava and carefully reviewed the situation. to the incident report: Canada Goose Parka

Canada Goose Outlet emptied the bag and then began to yell about his bad day. day? Let me tell you what a bad day is for a Massachusetts state canada goose outlet ottawa trooper. It doin the perp walk out on Northern Avenue in front of the federal courthouse. Turn on the TV tonight and most likely the feds be dragging in a few more. The charge is usually embezzlement, for starters. Canada Goose Outlet

canada goose clearance said, his wife kicked him canada goose outlet out of the house and I was making his day worse. him out of the house? So he runs down to Centre Street and starts pilfering rocks from the rail bed? canada goose clearance

Canada Goose online asked DiFava for identification, he replied, not canada goose outlet usa giving you my ID. I didn do anything illegal. I explained to DiFava trespassing on the right of way is illegal and he became more agitated. canada goose outlet black friday sale Who does he think he is? A hack state judge junkie daughter? Canada Goose online

Canada Goose sale called the Transit Police canada goose outlet store near me Dispatch canada goose outlet near me for a back up unit. DiFava eventually gave me a work ID and his social security number. DiFava continued to cuss and yell about his canada goose outlet in montreal life circumstances. circumstances? Tell it to trooper Leigha Genduso, busted off the job just because she admitted in federal court to perjury, kingpin level drug dealing, income tax evasion and money laundering. Canada Goose sale

canada goose store And then trooper Genduso got hired at a bar in her gangster ex boyfriend hometown of Danvers, and a brawl broke out, after which she canada goose coats uk lost that job. And it got worse after no one tipped off the cops about the affray until I did the next day, the Board of Selectmen scheduled a hearing to discuss why canada goose parka outlet no one at the bar called 911. canada goose store

Leigha Genduso now there someone who got a right to sing the blues!

canada goose black friday sale wants and warrant check were conducted with negative results. warrants? I guess DiFava was never a member of Troop E. canada goose black friday sale

Canada Goose Jackets was told to stay off the tracks and leave the station. other words, the T lady cop told him, Colonel, screw! of course made his already very bad day worse. But it could have been canada goose outlet montreal even worse, Colonel. canada goose outlet washington dc She could have said the magic words to you canada goose outlet new york city that so many of your fellow troopers hear every day now: Canada Goose Jackets.

The post I think that explains canada goose outlet los angeles a canada appeared first on Wiki Environment.

]]>
http://wikienvironment.org/i-think-that-explains-canada-goose-outlet-los-angeles-a-canada/feed/ 0
Recently, a 16 year old canada goose outlet online uk girl http://wikienvironment.org/recently-a-16-year-old-canada-goose-outlet-online-uk-girl/ http://wikienvironment.org/recently-a-16-year-old-canada-goose-outlet-online-uk-girl/#respond Wed, 22 Oct 2014 05:54:36 +0000 http://wikienvironment.org/?p=994 Fear canada goose outlet toronto of canada goose outlet winnipeg the dentist canada goose black friday sale Being afraid of the dentist means different things to different people. Maybe it’s the thought that treatment will hurt, or thatthe sounds and smells bring back memories of bad experiences as a child. canada goose black friday sale […]

The post Recently, a 16 year old canada goose outlet online uk girl appeared first on Wiki Environment.

]]>
Fear canada goose outlet toronto of canada goose outlet winnipeg the dentist

canada goose black friday sale Being afraid of the dentist means different things to different people. Maybe it’s the thought that treatment will hurt, or thatthe sounds and smells bring back memories of bad experiences as a child. canada goose black friday sale

Canada Goose Jackets Karen Coates, a dental adviser at canada goose outlet montreal the British Dental HealthFoundation, says the organisation’sdental helpline receives many calls about fear and phobia. Canada Goose Jackets

canadian goose jacket Karen says: “People who are scared of the dentist often call us for help because they’re at the end of their tether. Their teeth don’t look nice any more or they’re in a lot of pain with toothache, and they want to make the first step to seeing a dentist and getting their teeth sorted out. canadian goose jacket

canada goose clearance “Some people have such bad dental phobia that they haven’t seen a dentist for years. It’s common for us to hear from someone in their twenties orthirties or even older who hasn’t been canada goose outlet in montreal to the dentist since childhood. Recently, a 16 year old canada goose outlet online uk girl whose mother has a dental phobia canada goose clothing uk called the helpline. The mother had never taken the canada goose outlet daughter to the dentist and now the girl desperately wanted to have a dental check up.” canada goose clearance

Canada Goose Outlet “Most people who are scared of the dentist have bad memories canada goose outlet store uk from childhood of the smells and sounds of the surgery,” says Karen. “Modern dental surgeries are much friendlier environments, with flowers in the waiting room, art on the walls, a pleasant reception area and polite staff. Canada Goose Outlet

“It’s altogether a gentler experience. Of course, you’ll still have the smells and sounds of the dental surgery but these are less noticeable than they canada goose outlet uk sale used to be with instruments hidden from sight and background music playing. Even drills aren’t as noisy as goose outlet canada they used to be,” she adds.

buy canada goose jacket Advances in technology have alsoimproved dentistry. Treatment can now be completely painless. buy canada goose jacket

Canada Goose Parka Find an understanding dentist. Ask friends and family if they can recommend one or look for someone who advertises themselves as an expert with anxious patients. Search for your local dentists here. Canada Goose Parka

canada goose deals Once you’ve found someone you canada goose outlet location think may be https://www.canadagoosejacketsoutsale.com suitable, visit the surgery to have a look around, canada goose factory outlet meet the receptionist and dentist and see the environment. Tell the dentist that you’re anxious so they know beforehand. canada goose deals

canada goose coats Pick an appointment time early in the morning so you have less time to dwell onit. canada goose coats

canada goose store The first appointment will simply be a check up so don’t worry that you’ll be launched into having a filling, the drill or a needle. Seethis firstvisitas your chance toget to know the dentist. canada goose store

buy canada goose jacket cheap Take a friend with you to your appointment. The dentist won’t mind if they accompany you throughout the check up or canada goose womens outlet treatment. buy canada goose jacket cheap

Canada Goose online Agree asign with the dentist to signal that you need a break canada goose outlet parka and want them to stop. It can be canada goose outlet usa as simple as pointing your canada goose outlet 2015 finger, canada goose outlet belgium and will help you feel more in control. Canada Goose online

If you think it will help, start gradually with a clean and polish then work up to more extensive treatment once you’ve built up trust and rapport with your dentist.

cheap Canada Goose Takeapersonal stereowith you to listen to music during your visit. It will help canada goose outlet store near me you relax. cheap Canada Goose

canada goose Some people find simple inhalation sedation very helpful to relax them for dental treatment. This is a bit like gas and air given during childbirth,but instead of being delivered through a mask it comes through a nosepiece. canada goose

canada goose clearance sale If you’re extremely nervous you may prefer intravenous sedation (through an injection into your hand or arm) during treatment. The drugs won’t send you to canada goose outlet sale sleep you’ll be awake and able to talk to the canada goose outlet houston dentist but they’ll calm and relax you so deeply you probably won’t remember much of what happened canada goose clearance sale.

The post Recently, a 16 year old canada goose outlet online uk girl appeared first on Wiki Environment.

]]>
http://wikienvironment.org/recently-a-16-year-old-canada-goose-outlet-online-uk-girl/feed/ 0