This report has been written as a field report in Halda River Chittagong Bangladesh. Many information provided here may helpful who are searching for information about Halda River Chittagong Bangladesh. Let’s see the report.
The purpose of education is to develop the knowledge, skill or character of students. Thus the education is the process of learning and knowing, which is not restricted to our campus or textbooks. Therefore, Students not only required quality education but also effective and latest means of learning to have a better knowledge and have a command on what they are studding presently so they will able to apply that knowledge in their future lives also. For this purpose, different sort of activities like seminars, discussions, presentations, workshops, local conferences, lectures and educational field trips are essentials to conduct at this level. Especially the activity of educational field trips which are commonly conducted for the students at higher level are one of the major source of providing knowledge to the students by giving opportunity for self-experiences and observations and self-long lasting learning.
As we are students of Environmental science we must have the practical knowledge. So in our syllabus there is a course included for only field work. In every semester we go for a field trip and gather practical knowledge. In 5th semester we choose Halda River to evaluate the level of anthropogenic environmental degradation in Halda River. In 5th semester there we have a course named Anthropogenic Environmental Degradation. With this tour we have also done the practical work of this course.
The deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources is known as environmental degradation. The anthropogenic environmental degradation the degradation which is caused by unwise and audacious activities that are made by humans. Halda is not free from pollution. So, we the students of 5th semester, environmental science, had decided to pay a visit at Halda River to understand the anthropogenic environmental degradation under the guidance of two of our honorable teachers.
Why Halda river is Selected:
Bangladesh is a riverine country. Once Bangladesh had more than 1400 to 1500 rivers but at present it has only 230 to 310 rivers and few tributaries & distributaries. Rivers are wetland play very crucial roles in the development of any country (Humayun Kabir et al.) Halda River is one of the most important rivers as it is the only pure carp breeding field in South Asia. (Akter and Ali, 2012) The river provides favorable physicochemical factors for the major Indian carps and creates a congenial environment for their spawning during monsoon between April and June (Kibria et al. 2009). Halda is one of the major contributing rivers to the national economy of Bangladesh. The total value in million US$ segmented contributions of fishing, fish fry, irrigation, drinking water, water transportation and sand extraction respectively were 0.07, 0.005, 15.78,1.33, 0.12, 2.51. (Kabir, et al. 2013). Halda is one of the most valuable rivers in Chittagong city after Kornofulli River. It is the only tidal river in the world from where fertilized eggs of carps are collected during the breeding season. Its unique features and importance made it as a most valuable river in our country as well as south Asia. The Halda River is important for natural breeding ground for many Indian Carps.(Alam et al., 2013)
To get practical knowledge and conduct a survey we, the student of environmental science 35th batch visited the Halda River under the course of “Anthropogenic Environmental Degradation.” We tried to reach the local people and understand their problems.
Visited area in Halda river:
We have visited Halda River and some nearby villages named Madarsha, Moishkorom, Urkir chor, Zia bazar. Originating from Halda chora, in Ramgarh Upazila under Khagrachari District, It flows through Fatikchhari Upazila, Hathazari Upazila, Raozan Upazila and Chittagong Chandgaon Thana before falling into the Karnaphuli River. The 98 km long river has a very turbulent tributary.We surveyed local people around the riverside for knowing their perception on on-going degradation.
Halda river Map:
Figure: Halda River map
Objectives of the halda river tour:
- To determine the level of environmental degradation in Halda
- To determine the major environmental degradation in Halda
- To make a ranking of the environmental degradation in Halda
- To evaluate the causes of environmental degradation in Halda
- To visualize the significant impact of environmental degradation in Halda river ecosystem
- To determine Impacts of environmental degradation on local peoples livelihood
Schedule of our tour in Halda River:
The schedule of the tour fixed before the tour. The date was fixed in 28th July 2017. The time schedule of the tour is given below.
- Started from IFESCU: 8.00 am
- Reached Oxygen:8.40 am
- Started from Oxygen:9.05 am
- Reached Modunaghat (Barua para) :9.30 am
- Reached Modunaghat natural fish egg and fry production centre : 10.22 am
- Meet Md. Manzoorul Kibria Sir : 2.15 pm.
- Briefing at Brick field area : 2.40 pm.
- Lunch : 3.55 pm
- Reached Urkirchor for survey : 4.30 pm.
- Return journey : 5.40 pm
Road Plan to Halda river:
For this tour we chosen the easiest road plan. The road plan of the tour was…
IFESCU Campuss → Oxygen more→Kuwaish more → Modhunaghat→Halda river
Description of the tour on Halda river:
At first our institute bus started study tour journey from IFESCU premises at 8.00 am. Then the bus reached oxygen moor at 8.40 am. After that we have finished our breakfast and then started our journey again for the Modunaghat area. Our institute bus stopped near Modunaghat bridge and we went to the Barua para by walking. Meanwhile, we got a well-structured questionnaires for surveying. Our honorable sirs gave us some information about the surroundings and our responsibilities and taught us how to conduct survey. Every students got 2 pieces of questionnaire survey copy for the data collection. While walking we have come across the sluice gate area where some fishermen were catching fish from the river. We, along with our sirs stopped there. Our honorable teacher asked a local man for survey and gave a practical knowledge for conducting a survey. The old man named Mohammed Younus Chowdhury (58 years) gave a lot of information about Halda. The information that he has given are follows:
- Fishes like Rui, Catla, Baila, Magur, Icha mach etc. are found in this river
- The sluice gate was built on 1980
- Flood is occurred due to mismanagement of this sluice gate
- Those sluice gates are under Water Development Board
- The depth of the river is also decreasing due to siltation
- Water quality of this river is gradually decreasing due to industrial effluent
- Besides various dead livestock’s floating out in the river, also causing degradation of the river ecosystem.
- Now only 10% of fish are got in regards to previous time
Mohammed Younus Chowdhury also gave some recommendation also for mitigating pollution in halda. These was
- Open water flow through sluice gate
- Proper management of sluice gate
- Controlling industrial waste
- Establish the “Food in return of work” which is under Union Parishad, to stop the illegal fishing in the river
We again started our journey again and reached ‘Madunaghat natural spawn and fry production center’ at 10.20 am. A man named Gazi Selim who was caretaker of this institution welcomed us and gave us a lot information of Halda river and the the process and facts of natural spawning.
He gave us the following information:
- Halda is a river famous in Asia
- Halda is the only river where fertilized egg are found
- The carp fish spawns egg in May to June month
- The egg of 4 days age are most valuable
- The fish can give egg at any time. When they realize the environment is suitable the give egg
- During March- July in these period fishing is strictly prohibited
- Thunder, lighting, rain, direction of sun and moon etc are factors to brood fishes to lay eggs in the river
- In 48 hours the fertilized eggs grow to small fish and in between 5 days the blood generate in their body
- PH=7.5- 9 is needed for survival of the eggs but 7.6 is the best of all
- 1 kg fertilized eggs can produce 4 lakh fries. The market price of it is almost 60,000 taka
- The centre established on 1991
- Some people collect fish in traditional wayHe also addressed some reasons of the ecosystem degradation of Halda river:
- The depth of the river become very narrow due to sedimentation
- Fish hunters in the river banks are gradually increasing
- Reducing water quality due to dumping of dead animals
- Illegal fishing during the time of mother fishes to lay eggs
- Lack of proper patrolling
After that we have met a person named Asok Barua, a local man. From him we also gathered information about the present status of Halda. He told us due to over flow of the river the adjacent agricultural field has been destroyed. People are using fertilizer in the crops and the excessive use of fertilizer and insecticides the river is getting polluted by surface runoff. He informed us the depth of the river is lessening due to siltation. He also told that the agricultural cost is increasing due to over-flooding.
After that, we started our survey. We have visited some household at Madarsha village with our previously made questionnaire. We asked about the present condition of Halda and how the river affecting their livelihood. We also wanted to know about the possible solution of degradation.
A general overview of the survey, we found some problems or environmental degradation.
- RIVER EROSION
- OVER FLOW
- WATER LOGGING
- SALINITY INCREASE
- DEGRADATION OF FISH HABITAT
The villagers gave us recommendation also: These are enlisted below….
- CONSTRUCTION OF DAM / EMBANKMENT ALONG RIVERSIDE
- LAW ENFORCEMENT
- AWARENESS CREATION
- MODERN TECHNOLOGY TO Check degradation
- GOVT. INVOLVEMENT
- STOP HARVESTING OF FISH DURING BREEDING SEASON
- INCREASE THE HEIGHT OF A ROAD
After that, we came back to Modunaghat and met with Md. Monzoorul Kibria sir, Professor, Dept. Of Zoology, CU. He took us to a banned brickfield by riding boat in Halda River. We met some volunteers of “Volunteers of Bangladesh” in that area. We got a lot of information about Halda from Kibria sir.
He told us that Halda is the only endemic river of Bangladesh because origin and end of the river is in Bangladesh. It is natural breeding ground of Indian carps and for that it is termed as natural gene bank. It is lifeline of Chittagong. Everyday about 9 core liter water is collected from this river. It is the habitat of some critically endangered species like ‘Ganges Dolphin’. From fish resources about 800 core BDT can be earned with contribute a major part in economy of Bangladesh. It’s the 3rd natural heritage like cox’s bazar and Sundarban.
He informed that the Halda River is directly connected with almost 36 cannel and through which the toxicants from industries and tanneries come to the river. Through Khandokia khal, maximum toxicants from tanneries are coming into the river. So dissolve Oxygen is getting lower. Brood fish are easily killed by illegal activities of fishermen. Due to oxbow cutting the normal flow of the river is interrupted and that’s why the aquatic ecosystem is degrading. And for these reasons lesser number of brood fish laying eggs in Halda River. A lot of sluice gate are built as well as rubber dam. So salinity is increasing in Halda River.
After visiting Halda, we came back to Modunaghat and take our launch. After launch we have visited “Moishkorom” in Urkirchor in Rawzan Upazila. Here we make another survey GroupWise. We collected data from the villagers. After that we started for the campus.
Halda River is one of the most resourceful rivers in Bangladesh. This river provides a number of products and services all-round the year to the communities living its vicinity. However, it has attained a very special identity and is frequently referred as a national natural heritage by being the only breeding and spawning ground for major Indian carps. Halda River fulfills two conditions fully and one condition by half among the four conditions of the UNESCO for being a site in world heritage. We hope that, Halda River will be a national natural heritage within few days and in future it will be a world heritage site. For this purpose, we should protect Halda river from being degraded by anthropogenic causes. Besides, modern technology (like GIS, remote sensing) should be used for more fish production.
Akter, A., and Ali, M.H. (2012). Environmental flow requirements assessment in the Halda River, Bangladesh. Hydrological Sciences Journal 57, 326–343.
Kabir, H., Kibria, M., Jashimuddin, M., and Hossain, M.M. (2015). Conservation of a river for biodiversity and ecosystem services: the case of the Halda–the unique river of Chittagong, Bangladesh. International Journal of River Basin Management 13, 333–342.
Kabir, M., Kibria, M., Jashimuddin, M., Hossain, M.M., and others (2016a). COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT IN RIVER MANAGEMENT FOR ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AND LIVELIHOOD: A CASE STUDY OF HALDA RIVER IN BANGLADESH. Environmental Research Journal 10.
Click here to see An analytical report on Halda River chittagong Bangladesh