Proposed declassification of disease categories related to sexual orientation in the
a. Department of Epidemiology, Fielding School of Public Health, 640 Charles canada goose parka outlet E Young Dr S, University of California, Los Angeles, California, 90024 1772, United States of America (USA).
canadian goose jacket b. Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.(Submitted: 10 January 2014 Revised version received: 23 April 2014 Accepted: 23 April 2014 Published online: 17 June 2014.)A core constitutional responsibility of the World Health Organization (WHO) is the development and maintenance of international health classification systems such as the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD)1 (Box 1). Currently, WHO is revising the ICD and it is http://www.canadagoosecanadaoutlet.com anticipated that the 11th revision (ICD 11) will be published in 2017. As part of this canada goose outlet ontario process, WHO’s Departments of Mental Health and Substance Abuse and Reproductive Health and Research canada goose outlet have appointed a Working Group on the Classification of Sexual Disorders and Sexual Health (hereafter referred to as the Working Group). The group is charged with reviewing and making recommendations pertaining to canada goose outlet seattle categories related to sexuality in the chapter on mental and behavioural disorders in the previous version; ICD 10. Before making its recommendations, the Working Group was asked to consider the substantial scientific advances that have taken place since 1990, when ICD 10 was published. canadian goose jacket
canada goose clearance sale Box 1. Structure of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision canada goose clearance sale
canada goose store The International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) is the official classification of diseases, health conditions and related health problems of the World Health Organization (WHO). It is used to assign human morbidity and mortality to specific categories. canada goose store
canada goose black friday sale The 194 Member States of WHO agree to use the ICD as the standard for collecting and reporting information related to health conditions. This allows for the systematic tracking canada goose outlet online of mortality, morbidity and disease burden internationally and throughout time. canada goose black friday sale
Canada Goose Parka The ICD is also used to direct clinical care and research, allocate resources and monitor progress in achieving public health goals. Canada Goose Parka
cheap Canada Goose The classification is organized into 21 chapters, each containing disease canada goose outlet belgium or health related categories or both, including: cheap Canada Goose
Canada Goose Outlet Chapter V. Mental behavioural disorders Canada Goose Outlet
buy canada goose jacket F categories include the F 66 categories: psychological and behavioural disorders associated with sexual development and orientation buy canada goose jacket
Chapter XXI. Factors influencing health status and contact with health canada goose outlet in canada services
Canada Goose Jackets Z categories include the Z 70 categories: counselling related to sexual attitude, behaviour and orientation Canada Goose Jackets
Canada Goose online In ICD 10, mental and behavioural disorders include “Psychological and behavioural disorders associated with sexual development and orientation” coded as the F66 categories (Table 1). Although F66 categories mention gender identity, historically the categories emerged from earlier classifications of sexual orientation. The Working Group recommends that the F66 categories should be deleted in their entirety. A review of the Working Group’s recommendations on gender identity has been published elsewhere.2 Canada Goose online
canada goose coats on sale Table 1. F66 categories in ICD 10: psychological and behavioural disorders associated with sexual development and orientationa canada goose coats on sale
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canada goose Sexual orientation is a contentious topic: internationally, homosexuality and other forms of expression of same sex orientation are stigmatized.3,4 In 1948, WHO published ICD 6, which was the first ICD version to include a canada goose outlet vip classification of mental disorders. Although ICD 6 classified homosexuality as a sexual deviation that was presumed to reflect an underlying personality disorder, subsequent research did not support this view.5 Moreover, recent surveys demonstrate that homosexual behaviour is a widely prevalent aspect of human sexuality.6 15 Over the last half century, several classification systems,16,17 including the ICD,1 have gradually removed diagnoses that once defined homosexuality per se as a mental disorder. These changes reflect both emerging human rights standards and the lack of empirical evidence supporting the pathologization and medicalization of variations in sexual orientation expression.3,4 canada goose
canada goose deals It is explicitly stated in ICD 10 that “sexual orientation by itself is not to be considered a disorder”. Nevertheless, the descriptions of the F66 categories (Table 1) suggest that mental disorders exist that are uniquely linked to sexual orientation and gender expression. identifying individuals who need mental health treatment and the services they require); (ii) meeting the needs of public health surveillance; and (iii) facilitating research.18 The review is also shaped by a fourth principle: awareness of human rights standards endorsed by the United Nations.19 As stated by the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, “All people, including lesbian, gay, bisexual canada goose outlet washington dc and transgender (LGBT) people, are entitled to enjoy the protections provided for by international human rights law, including in respect of rights to life, security of person and privacy, the right to be free from torture, arbitrary arrest and detention, the right to be free from canada goose outlet store calgary discrimination and the right to freedom of expression, association and peaceful assembly”.20 International professional organizations, such as the World Association for Sexual Health and the International Planned Parenthood Federation, have also asserted that sexual rights, including rights pertaining canada goose outlet florida to sexual orientation expression, are integral to human rights.21,22 canada goose deals
An overriding issue is whether the F66 categories capture unique mental disorders, which raises the core question: What is a mental disorder? In 2011, the International Advisory Group for the Revision of ICD 10 canada goose outlet boston Mental and Behavioural Disorders proposed retaining the following definition of mental and behavioural disorders from ICD canada goose outlet uk sale 10: “a clinically recognizable set of canada goose outlet black friday sale symptoms or behaviours associated in most cases with distress and with interference with personal canada goose outlet los angeles functions”.23 This definition is broad enough to encompass the great variety of mental disorders seen in clinical canada goose discount uk practice. However, it may be so broad that it could also include clinically recognizable syndromes such as grief responses to bereavement or reactions to everyday problems syndromes that were not intended to be viewed as mental disorders.24 Consequently, the structure of the ICD categories distinguishes between mental disorders and psychological and emotional responses to particular life circumstances that may occur with or without a disorder. a disorder category) may be applied. the Z categories) may be used to indicate that an individual is seeking canada goose uk site health services, canada goose outlet official including mental health services, in the absence of a current disorder. Existing Z categories include counselling related to sexual concerns (Box 1).
canada goose coats In addition, ICD 10 also recognizes that factors other canada goose outlet website legit than mental disorders may lead to behaviours or presenting complaints that could be misinterpreted as symptoms of disorders. Thus, the ICD states explicitly, “Social deviance or conflict alone, without canada goose outlet michigan personal dysfunction, should not be included in mental disorders.”1 This exclusion is essential because a variety of factors, including social environmental stressors and cultural norms,25 may lead to psychological experiences and behaviours that do not necessarily reflect an underlying disorder canada goose coats.